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Central processing units are the brains behind any computer system.These series of pages provide specific information about the specifications behind various Intel and AMD based processors.
 
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Central processing units are the brains behind any computer system.These series of pages provide specific information about the technicialities behind various Intel and AMD based processors.
How To Install A Dual Core Pentium IV Central Processing Unit
howtoupgradesymbol.gifThis document will outline the steps required to successfully install a Pentium IV based central processing unit. You will learn the basics of how to aply thermal compound to prevent overheating. You will also learn the proper procedure for mounting the CPU fan into the processor socket.
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Complete guide to Central Processing Units
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Processor Specifications

Many confusing specifications often are quoted in discussions of processors. The following sections discuss some of these specifications, including the data bus, address bus, and speed. The next section includes a table that lists the specifications of virtually all PC processors.

Processors can be identified by two main parameters: how wide they are and how fast they are. The speed of a processor is a fairly simple concept. Speed is counted in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz), which means millions and billions, respectively, of cycles per second—and faster is better! The width of a processor is a little more complicated to discuss because three main specifications in a processor are expressed in width:

  • Data (I/O) bus (also called FSB or front side bus)

  • Address bus

  • Internal registers

Note that the processor data bus is also called the front side bus (FSB), processor side bus (PSB), or just CPU bus. All these terms refer to the bus that is between the CPU and the main chipset component (North Bridge or Memory Controller Hub). Intel uses the FSB or PSB terminology, whereas AMD uses only FSB. I usually just like to say CPU bus in conversation or when speaking during my training seminars, because that is the least confusing of the terms while also being completely accurate.

The number of bits a processor is designated can be confusing. Most modern processors have 64-bit (or wider) data buses; however, that does not mean they are classified as 64-bit processors. Processors from the 386 through the Pentium 4 and Athlon XP are considered 32-bit processors because their internal registers are 32 bits wide, although their data I/O buses are 64 bits wide and their address buses are 36 bits wide (both wider than their predecessors, the Pentium and K6 processors). Processors since the Intel Core 2 series and the AMD Athlon 64 are considered 64-bit processors because their internal registers are 64 bits wide.

First, I’ll present some tables describing the differences in specifications between all the PC processors; then the following sections will explain the specifications in more detail. Refer to these tables as you read about the various processor specifications, and the information in the tables will become clearer.

Tables 3.1 and 3.2 list the most significant processors from Intel and AMD.

Table 3.1. Intel Processor Specifications
Processor Cores Process (Micron) Clock Voltage Registers Data Bus Max. Memory L1 Cache L2 Cache L3 Cache L2/L3 Cache Speed Multimedia Instructions Transistors Introduced
8088 1 3.0 1x 5V 16-bit 8-bit 1MB 29,000 June 1979
8086 1 3.0 1x 5V 16-bit 16-bit 1MB 29,000 June 1978
286 1 1.5 1x 5V 16-bit 16-bit 16MB 134,000 Feb. 1982
386SX 1 1.5, 1.0 1x 5V 32-bit 16-bit 16MB Bus 275,000 June 1988
386SL 1 1.0 1x 3.3V 32-bit 16-bit 16MB 0KB[1] Bus 855,000 Oct. 1990
386DX 1 1.5, 1.0 1x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB Bus 275,000 Oct. 1985
486SX 1 1.0, 0.8 1x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB Bus 1.185M Apr. 1991
486SX2 1 0.8 2x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB Bus 1.185M Apr. 1994
487SX 1 1.0 1x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB Bus 1.2M Apr. 1991
486DX 1 1.0, 0.8 1x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB Bus 1.2M Apr. 1989
486SL[2] 1 0.8 1x 3.3V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB Bus 1.4M Nov. 1992
486DX2 1 0.8 2x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 8KB Bus 1.2M Mar. 1992
486DX4 1 0.6 2x+ 3.3V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 16KB Bus 1.6M Feb. 1994
486 Pentium OD 1 0.6 2.5x 5V 32-bit 32-bit 4GB 2x16KB Bus 3.1M Jan. 1995
Pentium 60/66 1 0.8 1x 5V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x8KB Bus 3.1M Mar. 1993
Pentium 75-200 1 0.6, 0.35 1.5x+ 3.5V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x8KB Bus 3.3M Mar. 1994
Pentium MMX 1 0.35, 0.25 1.5x+ 2.8V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x16KB Bus MMX 4.5M Jan. 1997
Pentium Pro 1 0.35 2x+ 3.3V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x8KB 256KB, 512KB, 1MB Core 5.5M Nov. 1995
Pentium II (Klamath) 1 0.35 >2x 2.8V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 512KB 1/2 core MMX 7.5M May 1997
Pentium II (Deschutes) 1 0.35 >2x 2.0V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 512KB 1/2 core MMX 7.5M May 1997
Pentium II PE (Dixon) 1 0.25 >2x 1.6V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 256KB Core MMX 27.4M Jan. 1999
Celeron (Covington) 1 0.25 >2x 2.8V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 0KB MMX 7.5M Apr. 1998
Celeron A (Mendocino) 1 0.25 >2x 2V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 128KB Core MMX 19M Aug. 1998
Celeron III (Coppermine) 1 0.18 >2x 1.75V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 128KB Core SSE 28.1M Feb. 2000
Celeron III (Tualatin) 1 0.13 >2x 1.5V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 256KB Core SSE 44M Oct. 2001
Pentium III (Katmai) 1 0.25 >2x 2V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 512KB 1/2 core SSE 9.5M Feb. 1999
Pentium III (Coppermine) 1 0.18 >2x 1.75V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 256KB Core SSE 28.1M Oct. 1999
Pentium III (Tualatin) 1 0.13 >2x 1.45V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 512KB Core SSE 44M June 2001
Celeron 4 (Willamette) 1 0.18 >2x 1.75V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB 2x16KB 128KB Core SSE2 42M May 2002
Pentium 4 (Willamette) 1 0.18 >2x 1.75V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >16KB 256KB Core SSE2 42M Nov. 2000
Pentium 4A (Northwood) 1 0.13 >2x 1.5V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >16KB 512KB Core SSE2 55M Jan. 2002
Pentium 4EE (Prestonia) 1 0.13 >2x 1.5V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >16KB 512KB 2MB Core SSE2 178M Nov. 2003
Pentium 4E (Prescott) 1 0.09 >2x 1.4V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >16KB 1MB Core SSE3 125M Feb. 2004
Celeron D (Prescott) 1 0.09 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >16KB 256KB Core SSE3 125M June 2004
Pentium D (Smithfield) 2 0.09 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >32KB 1MB per core Core SSE3 230M May 2005
Pentium D (Presler) 2 0.065 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >32KB 2MB per core Core SSE3 376M Dec. 2005
Pentium M (Banias) 1 0.13 >2x 1.5V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >32KB 1MB Core SSE2 77M Mar. 2003
Pentium M (Dothan) 1 0.09 >2x 1.3V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >32KB 2MB Core SSE2 144M May 2004
Core Duo (Yonah) 2 0.09 >2x 1.3V 32-bit 64-bit 64GB >64KB 1MB per core Core SSE3 151M Jan. 2006
Core 2 Duo (Conroe) 2 0.065 >2x 1.3V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >64KB 2–4MBper core Core SSSE3 291M July 2006
Core 2 Quad (Kentsfield) 4 0.065 >2x 1.3V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >64KB 4MB per core Core SSSE3 582M Dec. 2006
Core 2 Duo (Wolfdale) 2 0.045 >2x 1.3V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >64KB 3–6MB per core Core SSSE4.1 410M Jan. 2008
Core 2 Quad (Yorkfield) 4 0.045 >2x 1.3V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >64KB 2–6MB per core Core SSSE4.1 820M Mar. 2008
Core i7 (Bloomfield) 4 0.045 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 24GB >64KB 256KB per core 8MB Core SSE4.2 731M Nov. ‘08
Core /i5/i7 (Lynnfield) 4 0.045 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 16GB >64KB 256KB per core 8MB Core SSE4.2 774M Sept. ‘09
Core i3/i5 (Clarkdale) 2 0.032 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 16GB >64KB 256KB per core 4MB Core SSE4.2 560M Jan. ‘10
Core i7 (Gulftown) 6 0.045 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 24GB >64KB 256KB per core 12MB Core SSE4.2 1.17T March ‘10
Core i7 (Sandy Bridge) 4 0.032 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 8-32GB >64KB 256KB per core 8MB Core SSE4.2, AVX 995M Jan. ‘11
Core i5 (Sandy Bridge) 4 0.032 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 32GB >64KB 256KB per core 6MB Core SSE4.2, AVX 624M Jan. ‘11
Core i3/i5 (Sandy Bridge) 2 0.032 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 8-32GB >64KB 256KB per core 3MB Core SSE4.2, AVX 504M Jan. ‘11
*Dual-core and dual-core with HT Technology have lower counts.
Table 3.2. AMD Processor Specifications
Processor Cores Process (Micron) Clock Voltage Registers Data Bus Max. Memory L1 Cache L2 Cache L3 Cache L2/L3 Cache Speed Multimedia Instructions Transistors Introduced
AMD K5 1 0.35 1.5x+ 3.5V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 16+8KB Bus 4.3M March 1996
AMD K6 1 0.35 2.5x+ 3.2V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB Bus MMX 8.8M Apr. 1997
AMD K6-2 1 0.25 2.5x+ 2.4V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB Bus 3DNow! 9.3M May 1998
AMD K6-3 1 0.25 >2x 2.4V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x32KB 256KB Core 3DNow! 21.3M Feb. 1999
AMD Athlon 1 0.25 >2x 1.8V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x64KB 512KB 1/2-1/3 core Enh. 3DNow! 22M June 1999
AMD Duron 1 0.18 >2x 1.8V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x64KB 64KB Core3 Enh. 3DNow! 25M June 2000
AMD Athlon (Thunderbird) 1 0.18 >2x 1.8V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x64KB 256KB Core Enh. 3DNow! 37M June 2000
AMD Athlon XP (Palomino) 1 0.18 >2x 1.8V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x64KB 256KB Core 3DNow! Pro 37.5M Oct. 2001
AMD Athlon XP (Thoroughbred) 1 0.13 >2x 1.8V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x64KB 256KB Core 3DNow! Pro 37.2M June 2002
AMD Athlon XP (Barton) 1 0.13 >2x 1.65V 32-bit 64-bit 4GB 2x64KB 512KB Core 3DNow! Pro 54.3M Feb. 2003
Athlon 64 (ClawHammer/Winchester) 1 0.13, 0.09 >2x 1.5V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB 1MB Core 3DNow! Pro (SSE3 for 0.09 process) 105.9M Sept. 2003
Athlon 64 FX (SledgeHammer) 1 0.13 >2x 1.5V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB 1MB Core 3DNow! Pro 105.9M Sept. 2003
Athlon 64 X2 (Manchester) 2 0.09 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 256KB/512KB per core Core SSE3 154M June 2005
Athlon 64 X2 (Toledo) 2 0.09 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 512KB/1MB per core Core SSE3 233M June 2005
Athlon 64 X2 (Windsor) 2 0.09 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 512KB/1MB per core Core SSE3 233.2M May 2005
Athlon X2, 64 X2 (Brisbane) 2 0.065 >2x 1.35V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 512KB per core Core SSE3 154M Dec. 2006
Phenom X3/X4 (Toliman/Agena) 3/4 0.065 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 512KB per core 2MB Core SSE4a 450M Nov. 2007
Athlon X2 (Kuma) 2 0.065 >2x 1.3V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 512KB per core MB Core 2 SSE4a 450M Dec. 2008
Phenom II X2/X3/X4 (Callisto/Heka/Deneb) 2/3/4 0.045 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 16-bit 1TB 2x64KB per core 512KB per core 6MB Core SSE4a 758M Jan. 2009
Athlon II X2 (Regor) 2 0.045 >2x 1.4V 64-bit 16-bit 16GB 2x64KB per core 1MB per core Core SSE4a 234M June 2009
Phenom II X6 (Thuban) 6 0.045 >2x 1.375-1.4V 64-bit 64-bit 1TB >64KB 512KB per core 6GB Core SSE 4.2a 904M Apr. ‘10

 

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This document will outline basic troubleshooting steps you can complete when you suspect your CPU fails or the system cannot boot at all or you see no video output when your computer is first powered on.
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